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Terrorism

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Midterm Examination

Terrorism is one of the most hideous and mischievous crime ever to be made by the human kind. It causes not only personal distress but also threatens the societal harmony that people have.  For law enforcers, terrorism is an act of tactic and strategy mainly caused to benefit the greater good or influenced by the holy duty.  Terrorism is considered to be an over-justification of the reaction towards oppression and abomination (Harris, 2000). It is believed that people are only rationalizing the evil thing that they do because they believe that they are only reacting for the evil things done to them hence it does not follow the argument that being vengeful and being terroristic are completely different entities.

For law enforcers, terrorism is calculated and organized manifestation of unlawful violence to impose threat, anxiety, fear and pain to coerce or force institutions of the society such as government, the church and the economy. A terroristic attack is said to be either politically-motivated or based on religiosity (Harris, 2000). For scholars, terrorism is any organized act of a certain group that entailed massive killings, destruction of ones property, economic devastation and people displacement (Burgess, 2003).  Terrorism is considered to be subjected thus is has many implied meanings and perspectives. Basically, terrorism would not go along without violence or a negative action that may inflict pain or fear to its victim. The usual victims of a terrorist attack are innocent people.

Terrorists justify their action based on their belief on what is right and wrong. There is always reliance with the ideology that has been inculcated to their minds. For example, terrorists claim to be in retaliation against the government for the sole basis of the government’s incompetency among other nation hence it would not change the fact that the government needs improvement. They believe that being hostile to the government would stimulate change. Due to this, psychological effects would be imposed to the members of the society. They will be covered with fear and anxiety which we do not want. Terrorists also tend to be coercive since they belong to no just ideology, they can do whatever they want on any method they wish. Terrorists also rationalize their actions based on their religiosity. In some cases, they said that it was their calling through which they would achieve salvation.  Lastly, when innocent people get caught in the cross-fire, they would rationalize and tell that the lives they took are a part of a bigger cause. Terrorists are covert operators. They are organized to evade the law enforcer’s detection hence it can be possible to track them down with the help of the civilians also by coordinating with the law and have much information about them. Awareness for terrorists can also help limit attacks and their existence otherwise. They would feel to be hunted down and lose their sense of belongingness.

The paradigms tell of the elimination of cultural relativism meaning the loss of cultural differences would result to less conflict with the society. Ideals of this perspective attributed it to terrorism because of the societal conflict eminent. Hence, there is no guarantee that there would a harmonious society without the existence of cultural differences. For the American policy, it would be of great use since America is interconnected with most countries around the world. And through this, it can be a way to weather down terrorism.

Basically, anarchism tells of destruction of ones property and order of society based the things not acquired by the adherents of this. Examples of these necessities are power, privilege and property. While socialism talks of equality among the members of society by having communal ownership to the privileges given by the society. The socialist idea was spearheaded by Karl Marx on his work named the Communist Manifesto. Both ideologies contributed to the strengthening of terroristic ideal, by pointing out that there is conflict within the authoritative sphere and there will always be conflict as long as there is hierarchy and stratification within the society. Anarchism and Socialism are just mere attempts to cure the pathologies of the society hence it would have created an unanticipated consequence which have lead to a new ideology.

References

Harris, S. (2000). The End of Faith: Religion, Terror, and the Future of Reason.  International Terrorism and Security References.

Burgess, M. (2003). Terrorism: Problems of Definition. Central for Defense Information. Retrieved on December 14, 2007 from: http://www.cdi.org/program/issue/document.cfm?DocumentID=1564&IssueID=138&StartRow=1&ListRows=10&appendURL=&Orderby=DateLastUpdated&ProgramID=39&issueID=138

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Terrorism Essay

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Given the turning planetary menaces of terrorist act. it is important that an apprehension of the history. nature and mechanism-premises under which panic operates is obtained. This is important as it would determine the position of policy shapers when turn toing issues of this nature. Terrorism. as it is understood is the action of none-state weak histrions. single or groups. who for some grounds feels suppressed. marginalized and. or denied what they may see as the basic human right.

All terrorist act has political aims. even though the culprits may utilize spiritual relics to appeal to a wider bing audience. and invoke a response through violent act to turn out or propagate their point. Yoram Schweitzer in “Suicide Terrorism Development & A ; ump ; Characteristics. ” Mark Sedgwick in “Al-Qaeda and the “Nature of Religious Terrorism. ” and Dr. James Armstrong. all demonstrates that self-destruction panic onslaughts are politically motivated even though the culprit may utilize spiritual symbolism to justifies their Acts of the Apostless.

Detecting countries in the universe where terrorist act is frequent. particularly in the Middle East. it can be argued that groups that engaged in terrorists’ activities are those that feel suppressed and taken advantage of by a much greater power. Therefore. terrorist act. peculiarly suicide panic is prevailing in countries where systems of gross unfairness seem to be. Therefore. the existent usage of terrorist act by non-state histrions is a tactic aimed at polarising the population in their favour. By killing people in mass figure. they are trying to take away the position that merely the province can lawfully kill – therefore sabotaging the province authorization.

As Armstrong. Sedgwick and Schweitzer exemplify. suicide terrorist act is non a new occurrence. but an old historical phenomenon. And that merely as modern twenty-four hours panic organisations. peculiarly Al-Qaeda. uses spiritual constructs to actuate its actions ( though their immediate end is political ) . assorted old terrorist groups have used similar approached to accomplish their political terminal. To understand the history of suicide terrorist act and how terrorist groups in the yesteryear have used spiritual tone to propagate their political class. Armstrong pointed out the Zealots-an extremist Jewish religious order that opposed Jesus.

The Zealots engaged in political blackwashs of their political enemy. cognizing that they would be killed in the procedure. Even though their ultimate end might hold been spiritual. the Zealots immediate purpose was political. In the same manner. during the 3rd century. the Assassins- a ill-famed terrorist wing ( similar in nature to Al-Qaeda ) in modern twenty-four hours Syria. assassinated many of their political oppositions in order to set up their ain signifier of Islam. In this instance. although their ultimate end was spiritual. their immediate aim was political. They wanted to establish a authorities that would stand for their position.

Harmonizing to Armstrong. these were the first sets of suicide terrorist act. Besides their used of panic. these two groups portion other things in common. They both resorted to suicide terrorist act based on the state of affairss they find themselves. As indicated. they both feel suppressed or taken advantage of. and accordingly wanted to turn their state of affairs around through the usage of suicide panic. Armstrong cited that the first moving ridge of modern twenty-four hours suicide panic occurred in Lebanon at an American embassy in Beirut 1983. and was carried by Hezbollah ( intending the ground forces of God ) .

The formation of Hezbollah and its used of suicide terrorist act came approximately as a consequence of Lebanon being under foreign occupational forces from Israel. France and the United States. The 2nd self-destruction panic onslaught by Hezbollah was against the U. S. Marines headquarter. which was followed by an onslaught on the Gallic transnational force. The last two. as Schweitzer’s ( 2000: 2 ) implies. resulted in the decease of 300 personals and tonss injured. These events led to the going of Western forces from Lebanon.

Having two more enemies to face. Hezbollah redirected its suicide panic onslaughts against South Lebanese Army and Israeli military places. Hezbollah suicide panic onslaughts forced the Israeli ground forces to pullout from their heartland of cardinal Lebanon. and caused the UN peacekeeping force to retreat wholly. Detecting such happening. one could detect that Hezbollah’s actions were chiefly political. Even though they may laud and advance martyrdom to accomplish their class. Besides Schweitzer’s demonstrates that Hezbollah tends to utilize suicide panic against Israel as a hindrance and retaliatory setup.

He represent for case. that after an Israeli air force assassinated Abas Musavi. secretary general of Hezbollah in February 1992. Hezbollah retaliated by transporting out suicide bombing against Israeli embassy in Buenos Ares. in March 1992 wounding 250 people and killing 29. In add-on. Armstrong forwarded that. terrorist organisations tend to diminish their panic activities whenever they seem to accomplish a political aim. For case. he reasoned that in Lebanon. suicide panic increased when the Israeli ground forces arrested top Hezbollah leaders. but decreased when the captives were released.

These indicate that the primary end of suicide terrorist organisation is political. non spiritual. Besides. because the dominant faith in the Middle East is that of Islam. terrorist organisations use this to their advantage. By utilizing spiritual tone to propagate their class. they are efficaciously pass oning to an audience that understands them in that term. which helps to advance their political docket. To exemplify that the chief aim of suicide panic groups is non spiritual. but political. Armstrong cited the Tamil separationist group in Sri Lanka-the LTTE as another illustration.

The LTTE is a secular patriot group that seeks to set up an independent province in Sri Lanka that is occupied by the ethic Tamils. The LTTE has engaged in conventional. guerilla. and panic run. with over 200 self-destructions bombing ( more than any other terrorist group ) since the late eightiess. The slaughter has lasted for two decennaries now and has resulted in the deceases of 60. 000 people. Although the LTTE gained some of their inspiration from Hezbollah. they are clearly a secular group with no spiritual claim to endorse or colourise their class ; but have so far committed the greatest figure of self-destructions terrorist act in history.

The popular image of Muslims Arabs in the Middle-East cheering “God is great” in the aftermath of panic onslaughts might hold blinded some bookmans into reasoning that the chief motive for terrorist act is faith. Suicide terrorist act spreads to Israel in 1993 by the “Islamic Resistance Movement” ( Hamas ) and the “Palestinian Islamic Jihad” ( PIJ ) . Hezbollah besides influenced both of these two groups with respect to the utilizations of suicide terrorist act. Because their audience is preponderantly Islamic. they have been successful in working merely that in propagating their class against Israel.

In kernel. what Hamas is making is what any other group ( terrorist or non-terrorists ) would make – talk in the linguistic communication that their audience would understand the most. In this instance Islam. Second. it has been argued that the practical being of the daily Palestinians lives-living under changeless business by a much greater power. Israel. created a status for suicide terrorist act to endeavor. The permeating position is that Israel. being a ace military power in that portion of universe has used and continues to exert absolute military high quality over the Palestinian people with the backup of the United States.

This. most scholars argued. hold created tremendous sum of anxiousness. despair and choler between Palestinian and Arabs likewise all over the Earth. Since 1993. Hamas has carried out legion of suicide bombing against Israeli claiming that they have no involvement in political relations and that their chief aim is based on moral grounds-aimed at revenging the decease of their loved one time and to make a stable societal state of affairs for the Palestinians.

Armstrong ( 2006 ) argues that this may be partly true because over the old ages. Hamas embarked on many societal plans. wellness attention. instruction and assorted building undertakings to break the lives of the Palestinian people. But as apparent today. Hamas has transformed its motion into political phase in its quest to establish a system or authorities that would stand for their position. Armstrong ( 2006 ) attests that this new moving ridge of spiritual terrorist act might hold derived from the autumn of the Soviet Union.

The autumn of the Soviet. which besides marked the terminal of colonial outstations in most of the Middle East. created a vacuity in anti-colonial terrorist act. ensuing in spiritual self-destruction panic. Therefore. most of what Middle Eastern terrorist act is about today is anti-imperialism. They view western manner of life as suppressive and corrupt and wanted to make a province or authorities that would protect their civilization. This position is illustrated in most of Osama bin Laden’s ( caput of Al-Qaida ) demands – that the United States should draw out all its force from Middle Eastern lands.

His chief end is to make a system of govern with really small or no western influence. This brought me to the inquiry as to whether the U. S. war on panic has been effectual. Most bookmans have argued that the United States has fashioned conditions in the Middle East. particularly in Iraq that would precipitate the creative activity of more terrorist activities than existed there before. All together. Armstrong ( 2006 ) argues that the U. S. war on panic is tantamount to engaging a war on planetary heating by bring forthing high fuel machinery that doubles the sum of C dioxide in the ambiance.

You can non contend a successful conflict against job by making conditions that caused it in the first topographic point. But this is precisely what the U. S. is making. By occupying Iraq and deploying our forces at that place. we are unconsciously turn outing the points or propaganda of terrorist organisations that. the U. S. is this evil state that is taking over or busying Arab lands and is stamp downing Muslims all over the universe. They are non cognizant that the US chief involvement is to protect freedom and autonomy of all people. regardless of their cultural or spiritual association.

Besides. as Armstrong exemplify. one can non contend against terrorist act because it is a tactics. a scheme of non-state weak histrions. Therefore. in order for terrorists groups to acquire what they want. they need all the schemes they have employed this far – raising response that would turn out their point through violent theatre. solicit mass organisation to accomplish their end. polarisation of the population and the usage of symbolism and development of spiritual tones to warrant their class even though their immediate end might be political.

Absorbing both the rational and moral kingdom of this statement. terrorist act of any sort is unacceptable. By prosecuting in panic activities. the propagators incomprehensible invalidate whatever moral statement they might hold had. Peoples should follow the illustrations of Mohammad Gandhi and Martin Luther King’s Jr. . non force attack to contend for a class they believe is merely.

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