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TRANSFORMATIVE RELIGION of PUTU WIJAYA’S PICTOGRAPHIC THEATRE (Abstract) by : Benny Yohanes KEY WORDS : TRANSFORMATIVE RELIGION This Article, representing analytic study to drama masterpiece from one of the notable Indonesia dramatist figure, Putu Wijaya. Putu Wijaya, born year 1944, from family of Hindu-Bali. Putu, live in Bali till finish his middle education . Afterwards he continue school in Yogyakarta, and since year 1974, he remain to Jakarta.
This article, will try to explain a process of theatre creativity , pushed by spirit for the transform of religion, becoming a form of pictorial theatre, with theme and tidiness of contemporary. Taken as analysis base, is to serial show of Putu Wijaya’s masterpiece, entitling ‘ ZOOM’, what show at the year 2004. First version of this show, show at the year 2002, with title ‘ WAR’. Last, its current version show at the year 2005, with title ‘ DON’T WEEP INDONESIA. ‘ Putu Wijaya, owning of spiritual strong tying with Bali local tradition.
Though, most process of his drama creativity is yielded in Jakarta-a secular landscape, where religious values become formally, at the same time marginal-but, traditional wisdom of Hindu-Bali, remain to colour Putu’s artistic contemplation. By sociopolitical,Bali-Hinduism tradition in Indonesia, was non dominant tradition, in comparison with Islam tradition. Even though, by historical,Bali-Hinduism tradition older than Islam tradition, but that tradition do not play role of majority.
But, minority position of Bali-Hinduism tradition, have assisted Putu to conduct more private reinterpretation, without having to face political judgement, from its formal center. Private reinterpretation will be more politically risk if dealing with tradition of religion, what by sociopolitical play role of majority. Putu’s theatre is not exhibition of images of stereotype religion, but represent recalling for the shamanistic space of Bali-Hinduism. Process that recalling it is of course entangle Putu subjective creativity alone, to present theatre tidiness and themes of contemporary, fixed present spiritual nuance.
But, Putu’s theatre is not form of contemporarized religion. Putu’s theatre is the spirit of religion transformative energy, and become to see contrast with its formal values appearance, because Putu apply strategy of deconcentration value, in his artistic contemplation. Strategy of deconcentration assess that, pass approach of distortion. Putu mention his theatre as terror theatre. Putu’s theatre present its ‘mental-terror’, as snare to strength of ratio, what always tend to format and explain message. Mental-terror’ emerge as appearance of his theatre struck from format of rationalization, and let audience adventure among draw fantasies and requirement obtain single perception. Spirit which is same to be practiced also by Putu in his literature pieces, where consciously Putu bang up by frontal things having the character of thesis with its antithesis, and gap between both that pole have never been pacified to become synthesis. Oftentimes Putu indicate that synthesis is sign end seeking. Synthesis mean stagnation. TRANSFORMATIVE RELIGION of PUTU WIJAYA’S PICTOGRAPHIC THEATRE y : Benny Yohanes* Introduction This Article, representing analytic study to drama masterpiece from Putu Wijaya, one of the notable Indonesia dramatist figure. Putu Wijaya, born year of 1944, from family of Hindu-Bali. Putu, live in Bali till finish his middle education . Afterwards he continue school in Yogyakarta, and since year 1974, he remain to Jakarta. Until now, Putu have written around 40 drama texts, 40 novels, more than 1000 short stories; beside other articles in the form of film scenario, criticism and essay. Putu Wijaya known as productive writer.
Year 1971, Putu Wijaya found ‘Teater Mandiri’ (Self-Supporting Theatre); group of theatre which still managing of hitherto. ‘Teater Mandiri’ have 35 year. This theatre group have executed many theatre performances in various of international theatre forum ; start from Brunei, Singapore, Japan, Hongkong, Taipei, Egypt, Germany, and some American metropolis ( Connecticut, New York, Seattle, Los Angeles) Transformative Religion This article, will try to explain a process of theatre creativity , pushed by spirit for the transform of religion, becoming a form of pictorial theatre, with theme and tidiness of contemporary.
Taken as analysis base, is to serial show of Putu Wijaya’s masterpiece, entitling ‘ ZOOM’, what show at the year 2004. First version of this show, show at the year 2002, with title ‘ WAR’. Last, its current version show at the year 2005, with title ‘ DON’T WEEP INDONESIA. ‘ Although, the show theme was changed in each its version, but all this show marked by using the same theatrical idiom : Big screen as main medium. ( Putu Wijaya, owning of spiritual strong tying with Bali local tradition. Though, most process of his drama creativity is yielded in Jakarta-a secular landscape, where religious values become formally, at the same time marginal-but, traditional wisdom of Hindu-Bali, remain to colour Putu’s artistic contemplation. The essence of traditional wisdom of that Hindu-Bali, synthesized in expression ‘ Desa-Kala-Patra ‘ ( Space-Time-Value). 3 That local wisdom, have taught Putu, to can to do reinterpretation to external changes at his new life region. Putu do not insulate himself with its tradition. Putu exactly expose himself, permeating influence, and adapt with world of secular Jakarta.
It is true, that external change, have caused him have social distance which far away with Bali primordial tradition. But, internal reins, which taught by principle ” desa-kala-patra”, exactly become transformative strength to remain to take care of his contemplation. Putu’s theatre, becoming postradition theatre, where various images of spiritual ancient, can wear again by theatrical, to depict social problems in contemporary world of chaotic,like : war, greediness, economic monopoly, power manipulation, and so on. In one of his book, Putu write : ‘ I have owned distance which far away with my Bali….
My Baliness is no longer physical Baliness…. I swear by, I born as a Bali…. In fact, I feel lucky, have owned distance with Bali, so that I earn to perceive more careful and is free, then reinterpretation to all local wisdom, Bali’s custom and also tradition. That’s causing, all my expression, goodness in staging or article, even do not show marking of physical Bali, but for the man who comprehend Bali exhaustively, will understand that I cannot everywhere again. I expressed, is not my tradition forms, but its soul, its spirit, that’s which I feel. From Putu’s confession above, we get picture, how Putu can animate the transformative energy of religion, as base of his new actualization. Transformative energy of religion, will live if aparting with its formal center. Go away from formal center of religion, meaning to conduct personalize to religion. 5 But, personalizing will become more intensive, if internalizing to tradition spiritual aspects permeated success intactly. Putu, as persona, making a success of this. But, efficacy of Putu to conduct spiritual internalizing, also very determined by sociological character of religious tradition itself.
By sociopolitical,Bali-Hinduism tradition in Indonesia, was non dominant tradition, in comparison with Islam tradition. Even though, by historical,Bali-Hinduism tradition older than Islam tradition, but that tradition do not play role of majority. But, minority position of Bali-Hinduism tradition, have assisted Putu to conduct more private reinterpretation, without having to face political judgement, from its formal center. Private reinterpretation will be more politically risk if dealing with tradition of religion, what by sociopolitical play role of majority.
Dominant Religion tend to institutionalize of its formal values closely. This represent consequence from target of uniformity, to control the understanding of collective to its values. This operation oftentimes measure up to which hierarchizes-heuristic, so that aspect of tolerance and of democratization of interpretation, becoming more closed. Formal Values of institutionalized religion which more and more centralistic, will be more signalize dogma than invention. This matter, at very storey of political level, will keep away contemplative function of religion to other life aspect, including artistic life.
At this phase, will emerge symptom of pseudo-spiritual, in the form of paradox, that is : Religion materialism appearance through stereotype images exhibition. 6 Putu Wijaya’s theatre, on the contrary, is result of private interpretation of religion, becoming form of immaterialism religion. Theatre Putu is not exhibition of images of stereotype religion, but represent recalling for the shamanistic space of Bali-Hinduism. Process that recalling it is of course entangle Putu subjective creativity alone, to present theatre tidiness and themes of contemporary, fixed present spiritual nuance.
But, Putu’s theatre is not form of contemporarized religion. Putu’s theatre is the spirit of religion transformative energy, and become to see contrast with its formal values appearance, because Putu apply strategy of deconcentration value, in his artistic contemplation. Strategy of deconcentration assess that, pass approach of distortion. Putu, explaining his intention of distortion approach as follow : ‘ I take a fancy to distortion. Fracturing or inversion which is sudden…. Do surprised and not be anticipated, becoming a kind of mind distortion bringing clarification.
I see it become a kind of terror, in positive meaning. From there later, then, I develop ideas become: mental-terror, effort to give clarification with surprise. So, ‘ mental-terror” is effort, is not target, to make mind which have stagnan be open again . 7 Anatomy of Pictographic Theatre in ‘ ZOOM’ Staging ‘ Zoom’ marking consistency seeking of Putu, keen of uttering of its aesthetic, as pictographic theatre. This is type of theatre which do not rely on verbal narration, but more signalizing through picture theatricalization.
Pictorial world tilled by Putu, onstage embody network of surrealistic space in layers. But, it doesn’t mean uttering like that detach itself from reality. Since 1991, performance of ‘Teater Mandiri’, generally do not use to be dialogued, but motion, fine arts and sound. Over there, ‘Teater Mandiri’ actors start to dwell its world. That world is made from unfold white screen, gorgeous spotlight. Rest is actor’s play energy at which is solid, and attendance of simple props, to be grown to become shadow Ianguage. Putu’s theatre, convergent fully at strength of visual impression.
Putu’s theatre, wraped by strength of sound amplification ( composed by Harry Roesli), making attendance of that shadow become fantastic, big visible human being anatomy proportion, moving mistical on the surface of screen. That Black figures see like concevutive hieroglyph which growing. Story do not become substantial element in Putu’s theatre. 8 Story only personating explanative side to ‘ visual essay’ which more realized to become coats of that pictographic. ‘Teater Mandiri’ substance is solidity of actor’s body scrapping in chaotic sound. Behind podium, actors do not falsify their play energy.
Actual energy transmitted full energy, along with sound stimulation battering entire audience side. Music of Harry Roesli transmit libidinal impulse, this music conquer ear to be embeded in straggling and clamour of voice. In the theatre of ‘ZOOM’, screen is curtain at the same time soul of whole artistic event. That of cause, screen do not be let as unfolding cloth level off. That screen of wave till look to have plump, pulled and snatch, to be ripped and torn, to be able to create visual architecture growing, in layers and doubled. Screen look as threat, symbol of strength of chaotic swallowing.
But in that screen also deepness of room created, mistery effect and nuance of magical created. And entirel attendance of shadow create dramatic composition which is not limited. By shifting role of story up at imaginative visualization, Putu’ theatre animate stage through kinetic effect accumulation, screechy utterances, and continuous sound billow heighten clamour nuance. To create theatre that high tension, actor cooperation behind the scenes become especial fulcrums. Actor conduct their dramatic role exclaimed. What will become to exclaim in front of screen, have to also to exclaim behind the scenes.
Actor become perpetrator, at the same time observe accuration of shadow effect which will be presented. Actors of ‘Teater Mandiri’9 work with multi-focus concentration. And behind the scenes, sweat which is fall among podium floor, melt also on the surface of props, explaining storey;level of totality which must be given, to make that shadow become animately. All actors work with eye really caution, there no smiling, there no relaxation, altogether caution and have to sprier, because scenes always stay in atmosphere of joining each other, without interval.
Screen in Putu’s theatre look like dozen of canvas , creating surrealistic painting which continue to grow in wrapping of intensity and light architecture , with attendance of wild images, like wishing to vomit ancient awareness content. Putu’s theatre aim to show conflict through expression which is chaotic. Its strength lay in strength of imaginative shadow. Flexing and nature of that fantastic shadow make peripatetic Putu theatre narration up at pure of dramatic picture. Attendance of verbal statement, as mode the forwarding of message by explicit, oftentimes force Putu’s theatre fantastic lanscape interest again to region of discursive.
Putu mention his theatre as terror theatre. 10 In version show of WAR ( year 2002), that terror, in surface level expressed by its sound amplification and through auditive effect done by Harry Roesli. Harry’s theater music interesting magnet of audience step into world of chaotic, what is the full of noise and palpitation. Among surprise of that sound, side of contemplation remain to give by its space, namely sound moment attend silence which is wingit, or magical, like keen and cool wind fizz attending in grave.
WAR it is true will show how dazing war finally only lengthening destruction tradition, silence of hearting mind. Articulate by ear tempestuous, Putu express his attitude which anti war. Strength of teror-mental, in Putu’s theatre non located in surprise of its picturization, or by its rhetoric contraversion. Terror emerge, when moment of visual exploration which awakened by ‘Teater Mandiri’ actors, in fact represent negation of definition to discursive meanings.
Though, as conventional audience, we always leave from assumption that a show can always formated, or concluded into a message syntax read rationally. Putu’s theatre exactly vitalizing at picture irrasionality, to negate the conquest of rationalization strength. Putu’s theatre present its ‘mental-terror’, as snare to strength of ratio, what always tend to format and explain message. ‘Mental-terror’ emerge as appearance of his theatre struck from format of rationalization, and let audience adventure among draw fantasies and requirement obtain single perception.
Spirit which is same to be practiced also by Putu in his literature pieces, where consciously Putu bang up by frontal things having the character of thesis with its antithesis, and gap between both that pole have never been pacified to become synthesis. Oftentimes Putu indicate that synthesis is sign end seeking. Synthesis mean stagnation. 11 Toward Pictographic Theatre. Putu’s theatre is pictographic theatre. Accentuation and its aesthetic articulation lay in strength of pictorial symbols. In Putu’s works, which using screen as main medium, that pictorial symbols emerge to pass various diom. There was body stylized which merely have dirndl, to attend ancient element, also as substantive actualization of instinctive body. That bodys look always give battle repeatedly, deal with the nature of chaotic strength which always pursuing them. There was tremulous puppets shadow, floating and flying on the air, like destiny which always do not surely and do not be holded. Attend also grotesque figures appear behind their mask, giving picture at internal potent of human being to stay and resist from all damage.
In tip of all conflict, giant doll glide from sky, picture of collective chance of human being, where benediction and anathema, anger and patience of liver, safety and mischance, always look to fall in moment which at the same time. Fact find its therapy in the middle of elegi. But, payload of pictographic in Putu’s theatre is always predominated by picture of cosmos which is being out of order, flaring up and always snaring human existence. Endless is conflict, not solution. Pictographic language is type of theater narration getting through rational existence boundarys and format of empiric.
Pictographic is mode of writing through picture mystery, also as a kind of vitalized picture for transcend to its literal meaning. Strength of pictographic language realize the choreographic rhythm through motion of archetypal signal. 12 In consequence, Putu’s theatre as ‘ visual essay’ not only opening correspondence between theatre with fact, but bouncing again all factual and intuitive memories of damage reality-became draw impression and concretizing of surrealistic space. Aspect of pictorial message, concretizes through surrealistic space creation, that’s becoming spirit and vision of taksu, Putu’s theatre charisma.
To read this screens, theatre audience must to have discipline and optical sprier of shaman, so that Putu’s theatre can be accepted, neither as postreligious experience or as aesthetic experience , which be intensive and perceptive at the same time. Rejoinder process as continuum of religion personalization Have to confess, in a number of Putu’s works, which use screen idiom, start from YEL, HURT, WAR and ZOOM, look similar idioms which always reappear, like body have dirndl, grotesque figures appear behind their mask, big globe balls.
Even giant doll idiom have been presented by Putu at ‘Teater Mandiri’ staging since 1970 period. This causing presumption, that happened idiom duplication in a number of that show. But, in my understanding, that return attendance of Putu’s ‘favorite’ idioms, is not a duplication, but idiom replication. Replication is process of rejoinder or weave again an idiom in new structure as great as improving the quality of its explorative signification. Replication is effort ‘ replying again ‘ or reply to seeking of meaning which not yet complete at its previous works construction.
By seeing from this replication aspect, hence realization with refer to Putu’s works which wearing that screen idiom, expressing of creative movement that goes on in Putu’s aesthetic sensitivity, which tardy peripatetic but consistent-to find most of sublime meaning of transformative religion, what chronically dialogue with those ‘favorite’ idioms itself. When this replication process end ? Replication journey, is not a type of linear journey from early going to is final. Replication is process to expand. There is no boundary to that expandability, because this is process of cyclical seeking.
Religion which is personalized is dialogued by which have never ended. In ‘ ZOOM’, Putu is going to individuate his tradition. The character of his pictographic show, on the surface of, see to more and more motivated by Bali atavism painting, which are : Multi-focus picturization, rich with surrealistic images, frame which is full by its symbolic picture and action, not anthroposentric, and seeking of harmony secret in the middle of path braid which not linear. Putu is finding his internal tradition , search for his personal-Bali Ianguage; a’bali’ senseness what is not literal; a postreligious Bali.
What later then differentiate Putu with traditional primordial creator, because Putu find his Bali sublimation by its expressions to transcends its stereotypical form. This is kind of ‘zoom out’ process what motion in Putu’s pictographic head. This article, will be published by The Conference Academic Committee of International Conference on ” Theatre & Religion”, in University of Qom, Tehran, January 6-7, 2007. Foot Note : 1. Using big screen as special medium, also presented by Putu at show ‘ HURT’, at the year of 2000. This show then presented at Asian Theatre Festival Forum, Tokyo-Jepang, in the same year.
In ‘ HURT’ Putu not play his own text, but use the passage from Singapore playwright, Quo Fau Kun, what its genuine title is ‘ The Coffin is too big for the Hole’. But, show ‘ HURT” presented in Putu’s typical style : Group Game with the high mobility, teatricalization of pictorial element ; wraped by soul of Bali music, presenting effect of surrealism aspect, and podium which always full of pounding of action and sound amplification( See The: Show review ‘ HURT’ by Teater Mandiri, Benny Yohanes, Khazanah, Pikiran Rakyat, December 30, 2000, page. 23 ) 2. “… Many people do not have the Bali reference, till seen only Bali which physical.
However, if you read my drama, and you know about Bali, yes that’s Bali. Balinese reading my article, can tremble. There was my drama text, CAUTION ( 1979). One day I meet Balinese in Yogya, what have time to witness that drama. He tremble because its images was really Bali. Some times ago, when I bring the drama to Brunei, there was Balinese feel like listening sacred song of Bali, Bali’s gending. Though that drama was abstraction and modern once. And in physical or formal, there was no ‘ Bali” at all over there ( See The : Putu Wijaya Interview by Budiman S.
Hatoyo, ” Wrting as Struggle”, in Book News magazine, year. VII, October-November,1995, num. 54, page. 18 ) 3. In the eyes of classical Bali, what is by Clifford Geertz formulated as theater state, history is not ahead motion from circumstance which less perfect to go to the more perfect circumstance. That way also, heterogenity and diversity, is not incarnation which is in advance of an early which still primitive and embrional, such as those which in so many detectable version in opinions which have mains to evolution theory generally and Social Darwinism especially.
Bali classical have the typical view, that history walk from a center go to outside center, with the perfection level which more and more downhill. Palace, for example, is imitation of king perfection in less perfect, as does town mother represent the palace imitation, in less perfect. So history, if seen in space bearing. In time bearing, history is motion to avoid an early perfect, going to materialization which less perfect, later on day. Like laid open by Geertz, history is not obstinate ahead motion to the better society, but move to avoid inch by inch classic model about perfection.
Human being alighted from Deity not merely by genealogical, but also qualitative. This means, nature of Deity, also descend and decrease qualitatively at a king; and nature of king, descend and decrease qualitatively at all nobleman; and nature of noble, descend and decrease qualitatively at ordinary people. Decreasing of it portion of Deity perfection at every social level in society, based on the level of spirituality portion, what is accepted each of everyone and every group in their spirituality.
Social difference only the part of cosmological diversity, and not become as something that have to be altered, but exactly have to be celebrated. Diversity, in consequence, representing chance which must be accepted by human being in history, because union of early perfect beginning, not possible to return. We have to live by diversity, difference, and disparity, because us not possible to invert the history motion to perfection and union of early. Putu Wijaya’s theatre creation become the representation from the growing diversity ( see the : Indonesia Art in 6 Question,Ignas Kleden, Grafiti Press, Jakarta, 2004, page. 20-121 ) 4. ZOOM, Putu Wijaya, PT Cahaya Kristal Media Utama,Jakarta, 2004, page. 220 5. According to Andrew Shanks, religiosity evolution expand in three phase. First phase, controlled by pre-reflective orientation. This movement ‘ accepting’ simple bliss for what there is; learn to feel the possibility to be happy, to love the life; to feel that the self ‘ accepted’ by world. This early movement, representing an experience moved by love and appreciation, in a radical passively; a unity to the primordial root, and requirement statement will grow on those.
The second movement, is’ defence’ movement. After passive attitude in acceptance to world, come the active resistance to hold out in it; yielding relationship which interfere in to others and world. This is phase ‘ escape for himself’; leaving emotional aspirations; providing stimulation for historical awareness, and represent the respon to present day needs. In this ‘self releasing’ movement, experience will be holy is modification with the new understanding to responsibility. Third movement third, referred as a movement of ‘ truth’; an impulse go to the truth, in an idealistic which trancendence.
This third movement not provide ‘ any “lable”, besides starting a process of the self invention. Dynamics from this movement, tend to repeal its root. Concept of the self invention, from this movement, seems provocative for the man who head towards the norms. Struggle mean struggle to awake awareness. This third movement, located in art, dance, and the Psalms. Putu Wijaya’s creation, incoming in this third movement category, because seeking phase ‘ truth’ for Bali status, have left the its formal lable, and Putu make a move up at his personal religiosity ( See The : Civil Religion, Andrew Shanks,Jalasutra, Yogyakarta,2003, page. 54-258 ) 6. Period of 1968-1998, governance of New Order in Indonesia apply the systematic repression principle, to almost entire of public life sector. Tight censor applied to art creation that voicing criticism to government. Religion life also controlled institutionally and bureaucraticly. This matter cause the appearance of two orientation in theatre creativity, that is : Critical response and adaptive response. Critical Response to New Order repression, marked by Political Theatre ( Rendra), Communal Theatre ( Gandrik, Gapit) and Theatre for Advocation ( Ratna Sarumpaet,Teater Buruh).
Meanwhile, the adaptive response, presenting a number of seeking of new theatre esthetics, namely : Academic Theatre ( Suyatna Anirun, Wahyu Sihombing, Teguh Karya); Moralistic Theatre ( Asrul Sani, Arifin C. Noer, Emha Ainun Najib), Theatre of Local Colour ( Wisran Hadi, Aspar Paturusi, Danarto), Musical Theatre ( Riantiarno), and Metaphorical Theatre( Putu Wijaya). Meanwhile, in context of institusionalization to the religious life , New Order governance, promoting development of religious place extensively, as part of religion stereotype exhibition and as persuasive medium to moderate public criticism.
The New Order government also promote the type of oratorical theatre, as medium of power cult and power iconization, in the form of colossal show and extravagant, by presenting very bright historical episode version, as mode governmental propaganda through artistic medium ( See The : Growth of Theatre Modernizing in Indonesia, draft of research, Benny Yohanes,2002, unpublished ) 7. ZOOM, Putu Wijaya, PT Cahaya Kristal Media Utama,Jakarta, 2004, page. 218 8. Show of Putu Wijaya become a kind of transition from important change in practice of drama writing in modern theatre in Indonesia.
That change seen in way of building text in theatre, from having the character of pyramidal text become the lateral text . Pyramidal text is dramatic text in form fixed writing text; oftentimes compiled with the dramatic structure of Aristotelian; presenting conflict phasing among round characters ; in form of complete plot, with the nature of diction which performative; and final act closed by a dramatic climax , a terminating as conventional law of theatre. On the contrary, Lateral text, negating message which ended by explicit dramatic climax.
Impressive fragments and cutting of conflictual situation only aligned, not circuit. Viewpoint for every fragments fluctuate, so that the anonymity of figure become more important than the massive characters. Semantic function from dialogue, replaced by motion, sound and picture. Element of dialogue, in lateral text more in the form of sentence phrase, statement cutoff draping, bouncing again the side of actors biography. Hence, conception of the author end, replaced by text participant.
Putu Wijaya confess, since year of 1991, the show of Teater Mandiri practically not use dialogue, but motion, sound and picture. ( See The : Lateral Text and Contemporary Antagonist in Theatre, Benny Yohanes, KOMPAS newspaper, Sunday edition, August 1, 2004, page. 18 ) 9. All actors in ‘Teater Mandiri’ always at condition to play in high tempo and full totality. But, such condition not instructed as an exhibition manner, because all actors more amount playing at behind the big screen, which becoming as most optical medium for the show.
The physical appearance of actors only become as hieroglyph shadow, without their explicit body appear to audience. Actor become to ‘ Being’ more as spirit, as charisma, as theatrical energy, exactly its when their physical entity become the pictographic shadow. At the opposite of that’s screen, all actors have to reach the aesthetic illumination, so that can reborn their self as dramatic self in the form of shadow. That dramatic self non merely raw physical shadow, because all actors have to able to free their self from motivation of exhibitory.
Thereby, shadow theatre which attended with all actors internal quality, becoming a kind of incubation moment, to the phase of attainment of status and intensity of spiritual show. That matter reflecting also significant role of all ‘Teater Mandiri’ actors, in supporting strength of transformative religion, what will be realized by Putu ( For furthermore description, see the : Actor, Trancendence, Putu and Taksu, Benny Yohanes, KOMPAS newspaper, Sunday edition, May 23, 2004, page. 18 ) 10. Terror basically is the way of bearing contestative language.
Contestative awareness in cultural life develop the opposite difference between the dominant and subordinan. Terror is origin child the domination. As long as practice predominate strenghtened by partys claiming as center of mind regulation, hence terror psyche will always grow as coherent implication. Thereby, is not dogmatic bases of religion given the language for awareness terrorized, or giving moral justification for that contestative action. Predominating is not internal product a religion. Domination is product from institusionalization mind which ‘ religionized. Contestation between the mind regulator with the perpetrator terrorized is not contestation based on the religion value. That only represent the contestation to uphold the existence of the other. In context of Putu’s theatre as terrorizing theatre, what will be fought by Putu is invitation for appreciate of mind from the aspect of look into the the other. Become, this represent the invitation to unload to return the permanency of mind, and at one blow show the version of contestative version, which must be given space in awareness.
This matter also represent the provocative element in Putu’s theatre, to return liquefy the monochrome mind dogma, and open the door for epistemic heterogenity( For furthermore description, see the : I, the Terror and Psycho-Cultural Reflection, Benny Yohanes, Khazanah, Pikiran Rakyat newspaper, Bandung, edition December 31, 2005, page. 24 ) 11. One of strategy used by Putu for resist the stagnation, is distortion use in defining circumstances, so that an event not own its conclusive final. Distortion conducted, can generate various reaction : surprise, fascinated, surprise, bitter, or disappointed.
But, Putu conduct the more philosophical distortion in character. What is shuffled through, not merely event element , but at one blow the dogmatic and essence reality from value itself ( See The : Indonesia Literature in 6 Question, Ignas Kleden,Grafiti Press,Jakarta, 2004, page. 101 ) 12. Show of Putu Wijaya’s theatre, always framed by choreographic rhythm, presenting to return the sacrality element which is mythical. This matter represent the contain of transcendental in that pictographic theatre, where motion, sound and picture, yielding a sacred unity, even if placed in modern show space.
Putu’s theatre can be seen as form of transcendental dance. According to Mircea Eliade, all dance initially represent the holy dance. The dance own the exrahuman model. The model, in a few case, in the form of totemic animal or emblematic. Dance conducted for to guarantee the cosmos orderliness. Every dance created in illo tempore, in mythical period. Choreographic rhythm own its model outside profane human life. Dance ever imitate the motion of archetypal signal, and or commemoration of mythical movement; representing reactulization of illud tempus, the sacred cosmical day.
By using strength of transformative religion, Putu’s theatre will reactualizing the sacred moment of awareness. Such moment that take back the human being into his cosmical order. And Putu use the world view of Bali, as model of his illud tempus. ( See the : The Myth of the Eternal Return or, Cosmos and History, Mircea Eliade, Princeton University Press, 1991, page. 29 ) 13. ( ( See The: Show review ‘ HURT’ by Teater Mandiri, Benny Yohanes, Khazanah, Pikiran Rakyat, December 30, 2000, page. 23 ) 14. 2 ( See The : Putu Wijaya Interview by Budiman S. Hatoyo, ” Wrting as Struggle”, in Book News magazine, year. VII, October-November,1995, num. 4, page. 18 ) 15. 3 ( See The : Indonesia Art in 6 Question, Ignas Kleden, Grafiti Press, Jakarta, 2004, page. 120-121 ) 16. 4 ZOOM, Putu Wijaya, PT Cahaya Kristal Media Utama,Jakarta, 2004, page. 220 17. 5 ( See The : Civil Religion, Andrew Shanks,Jalasutra, Yogyakarta,2003, page. 254-258 ) 18. 6 ( See The : Growth of Theatre Modernizing in Indonesia, draft of research, Benny Yohanes,2002, unpublished ) 19. 7 ZOOM, Putu Wijaya, PT Cahaya Kristal Media Utama,Jakarta, 2004, page. 218 20. 8 ( See The : Lateral Text and Contemporary Antagonist in Theatre, Benny Yohanes, KOMPAS newspaper, Sunday edition, August 1, 2004, page. 8 ) 21. 9 ( For furthermore description, see the : Actor, Trancendence, Putu and Taksu, Benny Yohanes, KOMPAS newspaper, Sunday edition, May 23, 2004, page. 18 ) 22. 10 ( For furthermore description, see the : I, the Terror and Psycho-Cultural Reflection, Benny Yohanes, Khazanah, Pikiran Rakyat newspaper, Bandung, edition December 31, 2005, page. 24 ) 23. 11 ( See The : Indonesia Literature in 6 Question, Ignas Kleden,Grafiti Press,Jakarta, 2004, page. 101 ) 24. 12 . ( See the : The Myth of the Eternal Return or, Cosmos and History, Mircea Eliade, Princeton University Press, 1991, page. 29 )
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